Table 1

Animal studies on tumour suppressive effects of dietary fibre supplementation

Animal modelCancerDietary fibrereferencesMain findings
BALB/c, C57BL/6,
BALB/c nude mice
LymphomaHigh-fibre(8%) versus low-fibre (<0.3%)32↓ tumour growth and ↑ survival in mice on high-fibre diet;
↑ butyrate levels in serum and mouse lymphoma tumour;
↑ histone H3 acetylation level; ↑ FAS, p21, p27 and Bax expression
BALB/c miceMelanomaβ−1,3 glucan (50, 100 and 200 g) versus PBS39↓ tumour weight, lung metastasis and mortality;↑NK cell-mediated antitumour activity
Athymic nude miceUrinary bladder cancerModified citrus pectin (350 and 700 mg/kg body weight) versus vehicle41↓ tumour burden; ↓ galectin-3 and Ki67 expression (cell proliferation marker);
↑ cleaved caspase-3 (cell apoptosis marker)
C57BL/6 miceMelanomaMucin (3% in drinking water) or inulin (15% supplemented in chow) versus standard chow42↓ tumour growth and ↑ antitumour immunity with total CD45+ cells, effector CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and total DCs; ↑ expression of chemokines, inflammasome-related and antigen presentation-related genes; Inulin: ↓ melanoma resistance to MEK inhibitor
Copenhagen ratsProstate adenocarcinoma1,3–1,6 β-D-glucan (50 mg/kg/daily orally)44↓ tumour growth and ↓ malondialdehyde (oxidative stress marker) levels
C57BL/6J micePulmonary metastatic melanomaYeast-derived β-glucan (1 mg intraperitoneally) versus PBS45↓ lung metastasis and ↓ gene expression of tyrosinase; ↑ monocyte-dependent antitumour immunity; ↑ levels of TNF-α and G-CSF in lung and plasma
NCR nu/nu miceMetastatic breast cancerModified citrus pectin (1% (w/v) in drinking water) versus regular autoclaved water46↓ tumour growth, angiogenesis and spontaneous metastasis
Sprague-Dawley ratsBreast cancerInulin, oligofructose or pectin (15 g of fibre in 100 g basal diet) versus basal diet47↓ tumour growth
C57BL/6 miceMammary cell/Lewis lung cancerYeast-derived whole β-glucan particles (800 µg daily) versus PBS62↓ tumour weight and splenomegaly;
↓ polymorphonuclear myeloid-derived suppressor cells (PMN-MDSC)
Nu/Nu nude micePancreatic cancerEngineered resistant starch (Hi Maize 260) versus standard diet66↓ tumour growth; ↓ acetylcarnitine, arginine, aspartic acid, hypoxanthine, inosine, and xanthine; ↑ glutamine
Copenhagen ratsPulmonary metastatic prostate cancerModified citrus pectin (0.0%, 0.01 %, 0.1% or 1.0% (w/v) in drinking water)69↓ lung metastasis in rats given 1.0% MAP
BALB/cABom nude miceProstate adenocarcinomaRye bran (30 g/100 g diet) or soy protein
(22.5 g/100 g diet)74
↓ tumour growth and weight;
↓PSA secretion and ↑ cell apoptosis
  • PSA, prostate-specific antigen.